ESE KOKO NASA NA AMERIKA BABA BARABESHYE ISI KO BAGEZE KU KWEZI?

Imyaka myinshi ikiremwa muntu cyagerageje kohereza umuntu ku Kwezi ngo kibashe kumenya mubyukuri imiterere yako. Nyuma y’imyaka 49 hatangajwe ko umuntu wa mbere yageze kukwezi, hari ibimenyetso bigaragaza ko ibi bisa nkaho bikiri inzozi ku kiremwa muntu ngo kibashe kumenya imiterere yaho.

Ese biramutse bibayeho ko ibyo twigishijwe mu mateka, ibyo twasomye mu bitabo n’ibitangazamakuru ,inkuru twabariwe bitari ukuri, hakaba nta muntu numwe uragera ku Kwezi? Ese Amerika yaba yarabeshye abantu ko ubutayu bwa Nevada ari ko Kwezi ari nayo mpamvu aka gace gahora karinzwe ku rwego rwo hejuru kuko kabitse iri banga?

Muri iyi nkuru turagaruka ku bimenyetso bitangwa bigaragaza ko bishoboka ko nta muntu wigeze akandagira ku Kwezi nubwo muri 1969 Amerika yeretse isi ko ariyo yanditse aya mateka ndetse Neil Armstrong akaba akigwa mu mateka nk’umuntu wa mbere wakandagiye ku Kwezi.

Kuki byari ingenzi kuri Amerika kugera ku Kwezi ku nshuro ya mbere?

Mu myaka ya 1950 Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika zari mu ntambara yiswe iy’ubutita(Guerre froide/Cold war) hagati yazo n’icyari Leta Zunze Ubumwe z’Abasoviyete (URSS) zari ziyobowe n’Uburusiya. Ibi bihangange byombi byarwaniraga kubasha kwigarurira isi no kuyitegeka . Guhangana kwagaragariraga mu ntambara zinyuranye zabaga mu bihugu bitandukanye buri ruhande rukagira aho rubogamira ndetse no mu ikorwa by’ibisasu kirimbuzi byo mu bwoko bwa Missiles(soma misile) zari kubasha kuraswa kugice bihanganye. Amerika yacuraga izabasha kuraswa muri URSS , naho abandi nabo bagacura izishobora kuraswa ku butaka bwa Amerika.

Uku niko Sponik 1, Satellite ya mbere yoherejwe mu kirere

Byavugwaga  ko uruhande ruzabasha kugenzura ikirere arirwo  ruzaba rutsinze intambara y’ubutita, urwo rukaba rwari kuba uruhande rwari kugera  bwa mbere ku Kwezi. Ku itariki 4 Ukwakira  1957 nibwo Leta Zunze Ubumwe z’Abasoviyete zakoze amateka zohereza  Spoutnik 1,Satellite(soma saterite) yabaye iya mbere koherezwa mu kirere. Kuri Amerika kwari ugutsindwa gukomeye maze ku itariki  ku 1 Gashyantare  1958 nayo yohereza mu kirere satellite yayo ya  mbere ,  Explorer 1 ariko yari nto ugereranyije niya URSS, ikindi kimenyetso cyagaragazaga ko Amerika yari ikiri inyuma. Ku itariki 29 Nyakanga  1958 , perezida  Dwight D. Eisenhower wayoboraga Amerika (1953 –1961 )yasinye itegeko rishyiraho ikigo cya  NASA(National Aeronautics and Space Administration), ikigo cy’ubushakashatsi mu by’ubumenyi bw’isanzure ahanini cyari kije guhangana na URSS yari ikomeje kubasiga mu ikoranabuhanga mu kogoga isanzure.  Ukurwanira ikirere no kugaragaza imbaraga n’ubuhangange  buri ruhande rufite byari bitangiye, NASA ariyo ntwaro Amerika yari yishingikirijeho yagombaga kubafasha gutsinda intambara y’ubutita bakohereza umuntu wa mbere ku Kwezi.

Ku itariki 25 Gicurasi 1961 nibwo  perezida  wayoboraga Amerika icyo gihe , John F. Kennedy(1961-163) yatangije umushinga Apollo wa NASA wagombaga kohereza abanyamerika ku Kwezi. Uyu mushinga wagombaga kumara imyaka 14 , ni ukuvuga kuva muri 1961 kugeza  1975 .

Nubwo NASA yari imaze gushingwa  ariko Abasoviyete bakomeje kurusha Amerika kwesa uduhigo mu kogoga ikirere. Ku itariki 16 kugeza kuri  19 Kamena 1963 nibwo Leta Zunze Ubumwe z’Abasoviyete zaciye akandi gahigo ko kohereza umugore wa mbere mu isanzure. Uwo yari Valentina Vladimirovna Terechkova.

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Icyogajuru cya Saturn V ubwo cyahagurukaga cyerekeje ku KweziThe Eagle Prepares to Land

Eagle yitegura kugwa ku Kwezi

Uhereye i bumoso:Armstrong, Collins na Aldrin bagiye bwa  mbere ku Kwezi

Ku itariki 16 Nyakanga 1969 nibwo icyogajuru   Saturn V cyarimo Neil Armstrong, Buzz Aldrin na Michael Collins cyahagurutse kuri  Cap Kennedy (ubu yahindutse Cap Canaveral), muri Leta ya  Floride cyerekeje mu birometero 400.000 aho ukwezi guherereye uvuye ku isi. Ku itariki  20 Nyakanga  1969,ku isaha ya sa mbiri na cumi n’irindwi z’ijoro( 20h17 ) ku isaha ngengamasaha nibwo ‘Eagle ‘ yoherejwe mu butumwa(mission ) bwiswe Apollo 11 yageze ku Kwezi ndetse   Neil Armstrong wari uyoboye abandi  amenyesha abari kubutaka ko bagezeyo kandi neza. Ku isaha ya   saa munani na mirongo itanu n’itandatu n’amasegonda mirongo ine n’umunani  (02H56’48’’),n’ikirenge cy’ibumoso  Neil Armstrong  wari ufite imyaka 38 yakandagiye ku butaka bw’ukwezi. Aya mateka adasanzwe yari ari gukurikirwa n’abasaga miliyari  2 kuri televiziyo nkuko urubuga rwa NASA rubitangaza . Agikandagira ku kwezi ,Neil yagize ati” That’s one small step for a man, one giant leap for mankind.” Tugenekereje mu Kinyarwanda yagiraga ati “ Ni intambwe ntoya ku muntu ariko ni intambwe nini cyane ku kiremwa muntu.

Iyi kipe yagarutse ku isi ku itariki 24 Nyakanga 1969 bakirwa na Perezida wa wayoraga Amerika Richard NIXON. Kuri Amerika cyari igitego gikomeye ku basoviyete  ndetse ikaba instinzi ikomeye mu ntambara y’ubutita.

Uwakoze mu mushinga wa Apollo niwe wabaye uwa mbere mu gutangaza ko Amerika yabeshye isi

William Charles Kaysing  wamenyekanye cyane ku izina rya Bill Kaysing yari umwanditsi mu bigendanye na Tekiniki (technical writer ) mu ruganda rwa Rocketdyne rwari rufite uruhare mu mushinga wa Apollo.  Ni umwe mu babaye aba mbere mu gukora ubushakashatsi ku cyo we yise  ikinyoma. Yatangaje  ko mu myaka ya 1960 hari ibibazo byatumye Abanyamerika benshi batangira kuvuga ko batazigera babasha kujya ku Kwezi. Kubwe amahirwe y’uko hari kugira umuntu ujya ku Kwezi akagaruka ari muzima yari 0.0017%, muyandi magambo  ntibyashobokaga.Uyu mugabo akomeza avuga ko icyogajuru cya Saturne V ko koko cyahagurutse muri Amerika ariko ahakana ko kitigeze kijya ku Kwezi ahubwo ko abari bakirimo batigeze barenga isi ndetse agahamya ko ibyakozwe ari amashusho yafatiwe mu gace k’ibanga  ka Zone 51 gaherereye mu butayu bwa Nevada.

Ubwo bari bakigera kukwezi Neil Armstrong na bagenzi be batangaje  ko babona ko ubutaka bwaho busa cyane n’ubw’ubutayu bwo muri Amerika. Iki cyaba ari ikimenyetso ko ibyo Bill Kaysing yavuze byaba ari ukuri? Ikindi ibitare byagaragaye ku mafoto yafatiwe ku Kwezi, bisa  cyane nibigaragara kumafoto yo muri Zone 51.

Muri 1973 nibwo William Charles Kaysing(Bill Kaysing) yanditse igitabo cy’amapaji 87 acyita “We Never Went to the Moon : America’s Thirty Billion Dollar Swindle.” Tugenekereje mu Kinyarwanda umutwe w’iki gitabo wagiraga uti” Ntitwigeze tujya kukwezi:Ikinyoma cya Amerika cyatwaye miliyari 30 z’amadorali.” Uyu mwanditsi afatwa nk’uwatangije ishinjwabinyoma kuri Amerika n’umushinga wayo wa Apollo aho aba yemeza ko aho kujya ku Kwezi, Amerika yashoye izi miliyari ku kinyoma yagombaga kubeshya isi ikina filime ikabyita ko yaciye agahigo ko kudatanga isi yose kujya ku Kwezi.

Ibimenyetso bigenderwaho hemezwa ko ntamuntu wageze kukwezi muri 1969

Hari ibimenyetso byinshi bihurirwaho na benshi mu bashakashatsi bahakana kuba hari umuntu waba yarakandagiye ku Kwezi. Ibi bimenyetso hafi ya byose NASA yagiye ibitangaho ibisobanuro ariko bidahagije cyane nkuko ababitangaga babyerekanaga mu buryo bufatika ahanini bifashishije amafoto yagaragajwe n’ikigo cya NASA.

Ibendera rihuhwa n’umuyaga

Aldrin Gazes at Tranquility Base

Mu gihe Buzz Aldrin yakandagiraga hagasigara ibimenyetso byibirenge bye, icyogajuru bajemo cyo nticyigeze gica nikinogo gito kubera uburemere 

Mu mashusho yose yafashwe agaragaza ibendera rya Amerika  ryashinzwe ku Kwezi riguruka rihuhwa n’umuyaga. Ibi byashobotse bite kandi ikirere cyo ku Kwezi nta mwuka kigira, bisobanura ko ntamuyaga uhaba?Iki nicyo kibazo umwanditsi Kaysing  yibazaga.

Urumuri

Buzz Aldrin aramanuka ahantu hari umwijima ariko we aragaragra neza cyane. Yaba ari amatara yamuritswe nkakoreshwa mu ifatwa rya Filime?

Urumuri ni kimwe mu bimenyetso abahakana ko ntamuntu wakandagije ikirenge kukwezi muri 1969 bagenderaho. Ku Kwezi urumuri ruhaboneka rwonyine ni urutangwa n’imirasire y’izuba ariko amashusho yerekanwe na NASA agaragaza ko hari izindi muri zitari izuba zamurikaga  kuri Neil Armstrong na bagenzi be kandi ntarundi rumuri bari bitwaje cyangwa se ibyuma bifite imirabyo(Flash). Ibi Bill Kaysing akabishingiraho avuga ko Amerika yakinnye filime ikavuga ko yagiye kukwezi ngo ikunde ice intege Abasoviyete.

Urusaku

Bill Kaysing avuga ko urusaku rw’icyogajuru rwari ku rugero rwa  Decibel 140.000(Decibel ni urugero rupimirwaho  urusaku) . Bill Kaysing asobanura ko byari kugorana kumva amajwi y’abari muri iki cyogajuru kuko urusaku rwacyo rwari ku rugero rwo hejuru cyane ariko ibisa n’ibitangaje nta rusaku rukabije ruba rwumvikana mu mashusho ya NASA ndetse ibyo Neil Armstrong na bagenzi be bavugaga byumvikanaga neza kubari bakurikiye iki gikorwa cyari kibayeho bwa mbere ku isi.

Ntibyari gushoboka ko Neil Armstrong na bagenzi be barenga umukandara wa Van Allen

Umukandara wa Van Allen ni agace gaherereye kuri kilometero 700 uvuye ku isi. Ni agace kagabanya isi n’indi mibumbe . Kabamo imirasire itwika ku rwego rwo hejuru(radiations). Kugacamo bisaba icyogajuru amasaha menshi ni ukuvuga kunyura mu bushyuhe bukabije kubakirimo.

Ikiremwa muntu cyose cyaca kuri uyu mukandara cyagira uburwayi bukomeye, kuba cyatwikwa n’ubushyuhe  cyangwa se izindi ngaruka harimo gupfuka umusatsi, kanseri n’izindi ngaruka zinyuranye. Ibyogajuru bya Apollo nibyo byonyine kugeza ubu byabashije guca muri aka gace, ntakindi cyogajuru kirimo abantu cyigeze kibasha kuhanyura. Bill Kaysing n’abandi bashakashatsi bibaza uburyo Neil Armstrong babashije guca muri uyu mukandara.

Icyogajuru cyananiwe guca ikinogo, umuntu ufite ibiro bitageze kuri 30 akandagiza ikirenge kiragaragara

Ku kwezi rukuruzi yaho iri munsi ya rukuruzi y’isi. Umuntu aramutse agiyekukwezi apima ibiro 80, yambaye ya myambaro yabugenewe ipima ibiro 40 agira ibiro 120. Kubera rukuruzi yo ku kwezi , ni ukuvuga ko ibiro by’uwo muntu  bigabanuka inshuro 6 kubyo yari afite. Ni ukuvuga ko yapima ibiro 20 ari ku butaka bw’ukwezi.

Ikirenge cya Buzz Aldrin ubwo yakandagira ku kwezi muri 1969

Nubwo Buzz Aldrin yakandagiraga ibirenge bikagaragara, icyogajuru bajemo kitabashije byibuze no kunyeganyeza umucanga byatumye byibazwaho na benshi

Mu nshuro zose Leta Zunwe Ubumwe za Amerika zagiye ku Kwezi hafashwe amafoto. Ntafoto n’imwe igaragaza aho ibyogajuru byageragayo byacaga ibinogo bigwa ku butaka bwo ku kwezi bitewe n’uburemere bw’amagana y’amatoni byapimaga. Nyamara ku nshuro ya mbere, hari ifoto yafotowe ya Buzz Aldin igaragaza ikirenge cye yakandagije ku Kwezi. Ibi nabyo benshi babyibazaho ukuntu icyogajuru cyageze kukwezi kikahagwa ntihagire impinduka iba kubutaka, umuntu we yakandagira ikirenge kikishushanya.

Ukutagaragara kw’inyenyeri mu mafoto nabyo hari ababyibajijeho

Gus Grissom n’abandi bagenzi be bivugwa ko bishwe kubwo kumenya ukuri

Virgil Guss Grissom yari umwe mu ba Astronauts (inzobere mu bumenyi bw’isanzure)kabuhariwe kandi bari bafite ubuhanga. Si ubwambere yari akoze ingendo zo mu isanzure. Uyu kandi bivugwa ko yari umwe mu batari bashyigikiye ko Amerika ijya kukwezi ndetse yari yaravuze ko hari umuntu ugiye gupfa.

Ku itariki 27 Mutarama 1967 ibyo yavuze niwe byabayeho . We na bagenzi be 2 Edward White II, na  Roger Chaffee bahiriye mu cyogajuru  cya Apollo 1 kitarahaguruka . Mbere y’uko iki cyogajuru gifatwa n’inkongi, Guss yumvikanye avugana na bagenzi be bari gusigara kubutaka niba bamwumva, abandi bamusubije ko batari kumwumva, maze nawe yumvikana yitonganya ati “Niba tutabasha kumvikana ni gute tuzabasha kugera kukwezi?

Apollo 1's crew--Virgil I.

Guss Grissom,Edward White na Roger Chaffee bahiriye mu cyogajuru mbere y’uko gihaguruka bikavugwa ko bazize kumenya ukuri

Scott Grissom umuhungu wa Guss Grisson yagize ati “ Ndizera ko ari ibintu bakoze ku bushake, ndibaza icyo baba barabonye mu iperereza bakoze kuri iriya mpanuka niba baranarikoze. CIA ,FBI cyangwa abandi bari babiri inyuma gusa icyo nziko ni uko babikoze ku bushake.”

Uyu muryango  wa Grissom kandi ngo  ntuzi uwaba yarateye iyi mpanuka cyangwa icyabaye mubyukuri ariko bagatangaza ko NASA ariyo izi ukuri. Umugore we Betty Grissom yagize ati “ Guss yari yarashyize ubuzima bwe bwose mu mushinga wa Apollo, ndizera ko NASA ariyo igomba kuduha igisubizo cyanyacyo cy’uko ibintu byagenze mubyukuri.”

Ku itariki 21/04/1967 Thomas Ronald Baron  wari umugenzuzi mu bwubatsi mu mushinga wa  Apollo 1 yabwiye Leta ya Amerika ko uyu mushinga wari ufite ibibazo kuburyo nta munyamerika uzigera ubasha kugera ku Kwezi. Ibi yabivugiye imbere y’inteko ya Amerika( Congress )ndetse agaragaza n’icyegeranyo (Rapport )cy’amapaji  100 y’ubushakashatsi  yari yakoze. Nyuma y’icyumweru  atanze ubuhamya, Baron yapfiriye mu mpanuka y’imodoka,apfana n’umugore we. Kuva icyo gihe Rapport ye yaburiwe irengero  mu buryo butazwi. Hagati ya 1964 na 1967 abahanga mu by’isanzure( Astronauts) bakoreraga NASA  nibura 10 bapfiriye mu mpanuka zidasobanutse, ni ukuvuga nibura 15% by’aba Astronauts ba NASA  .  Kuki aba bose bari bakomeje gupfa, ni Amerika yabikizaga ngo badatangaza ukuri?

Bill Kaysing ahamya ko kuba abapfuye bari abantu bari bazi neza uyu mushinga wo kujya ku kwezi kurusha abandi bakozi bose bakoreraga NASA , bwari uburyo bwo gukumira ko bari kumena ibanga.

Kuki Amerika itasubiye ku kwezi cyangwa ngo ikindi gihugu cy’igihangange kijyeyo

Ubajije abantu benshi kukubwira umubare w’abantu bakandagiye  kukwezi cyangwa amazina yabo, abenshi bazakubwira Neil Armstrong na Buzz Aldin . Kuva ku itariki 20 Nyakanga 1969 kugeza ku itariki 11 Ukuboza 1972,  Abanyamerika 12 nibo bagiye ku Kwezi kuva ku mushinga wa Apollo 11 kugeza kuri Apollo 17. Abandi  ni Pete Conrad, Alan Bean, Alan Shepard, Edgar Mitchell, David Scott, James Irwin, John Young, Charles Duke, Eugene Cernan, na Harrison Schmitt.

Ikindi cyibazwa na benshi ni impamvu Abanyamerika batigeze basubira ku Kwezi nyuma ya 1972 kandi aribwo iterambere n’ubuhanga byiyongereyeho. Ntakindi gihugu gikomeye mu ikoranabuhanga rigendanye n’isanzure cyigeze kibasha kugera ku Kwezi. Kuki ari Abanyamerika gusa babashije kujya kukwezi?Uburusiya n’ibindi bihugu bikomeye byananiwe kujyayo?

Ikinyamakuru Le Telegramme gitangaza ko undi muntu ushobora kuzajya kukwezi biteganyijwe ko ashobora kuzajyayo muri 2032 kandi ngo ashobora kuzaba ari umushinwa. Ibi cyabisohoye mu nyandiko yacyo yo muri 2012 yari ifite umutwe ugira uti’ Prochain homme sur la lune. Un Chinois en 2030 ?

Amashusho y’umwimerere agaragaza umuntu wa mbere ajya kukwezi yaburiwe irengero

Mu kwezi kwa Kamena 2015, Vladimir Markin umuvugizi w’akanama gashinzwe iperereza muri guverinoma y’Uburusiya  yagaragaje igisa n’ugushidikanya ku kuba Amerika yaba yarigeze igera ku kwezi ndetse yasabye Leta ya Amerika  ko yareka hagakorwa iperereza mpuzamahanga hakamenyekana mubyukuri uko byagenze kugira ngo  amashusho y’umwimerere(original footage )yafashwe n’ikigo cya NASA ubwo Amerika yageraga kukwezi  bwa mbere aburirwe irengero, ayo tubona kugeza bu yose ni amakopi. Ikinyamakuru Daily Mail cyabyanditse mu nkuru cyahaye umutwe ugira uti “ Russia suggests America has NEVER landed on the moon and calls for ‘an investigation into what really happened‘ yo ku wa 18 Kamena 2015.

Vladimir Markin yavuze ibi nyuma yaho mu mwaka wa 2009 ikigo cy’ubushakashatsi cya Amerika NASA gitangarije ko amashusho y’umwimerere yafashwe muri 1969 yasibwe kubwimpanuka.  Aganira n’ikinyamakuru The Time, Dick Nafzger inzobere mu mashusho mu kigo cya NASA mu magambo ye yagize ati “ Ukuri nyako ni uko amashusho ntayagihari”.

Si amashusho y’umwimerere  yabuze gusa , kuko Vladimir Markin yatangaje ko hakenewe n’iperereza ku gice cy’urutare cyakuwe ku kwezi nacyo cyabuze. Ikinyamakuru Le Monde cyatangaje ko  ko ibice by’urutare byavanywe ku Kwezi byapimaga ibiro 400 mu nshuro zose Abanyamerika bagiyeyo  naho amashusho yasibwe akaba yari ku makaseti 200.  Ikinyamakuru Moscow Times cyatangaje ko ubwo uyu muvugizi w’Ubursiya yavugaga ibi ntaho byari bihuriye no kuvuga ko Amerika itigeze ijya ku kwezi ,ahubwo ikaba yarabikinnyemo filime.  Amashusho yo kuba umuntu wa mbere yarageze kukwezi yasibwe ate  kandi yari abitswe n’ikigo gifite ikoranabuhanga ryo mu rwego rwo hejuru?Yari abitse ahantu buri muntu wese yagera akayasiba kandi ari amateka akomeye kuri Amerika no ku kiremwa muntu kuri rusange nkuko Neil Armstrong yabitangaje?Ko Amashusho yasibwa , urutare rwo rwazimiriye he?Ibi n’ibindi bibazo wakwibaza ni ikindi kimenyetso gikomeye kubavuga ko Amerika itegeze igera kukwezi .

US astronaut Neil Armstrong poses in front of his photo during a visit to the Prince Felipe Museum.

Ku myaka 82, tariki 28/08/2012 Neil Armstrong uzi ukuri kwa byose yaratabarutse, abo bajyanye bo baracyariho  

Ikinyamakuru Le Monde mu nyandiko yacyo yahaye umutwe ugira uti “ Ils n’ont jamais marché sur la Lune”(Ntibigeze bakandagira ku Kwezi) cyatangaje ko muri 1999 ikigo cy’ubushakashatsi cya Gallup cyagaragaje  ko 6% by’Abanyamerika bahamyaga ko umushinga w’ibyogajuru bya Apollo wari ibihimbano  naho 5% mubabajijwe batangaje ko nta gisubizo gifatika bari bafite kuri iyo ngingo.

Imbere y’abantu miliyoni 15 barebaga televiziyo yo muri Amerika,  Fox TV, yashyize hanze filime mbarankuru(Documentaire) yise “Conspiracy Theory : Did We Land on the Moon ? (“Théorie du complot : avons-nous marché sur la Lune ?”) yateguwe na Craig Tipley. Nayo ikaba ari imwe mubyo twifashishije mu gutegura iyi nkuru yasubizaga abakunzi bacu bri wayidusabye. Nyuma yo kwerekana iyi filime mbarankuru, ubushakashatsi bwakozwe na Fox TV bwagaragaje ko umubare w’Abanyamerika batemera ko bigeze bakandagira ku Kwezi wavuye ku bantu 6% ugera kuri 20%.

Amerika yagiye ku Kwezi amamiliyari y’abantu abihanze amaso, byandikwa mu bitabo, byigishwa mu mashuri n’ahandi hashoboka. Kuba ibimenyetso by’uko byaba ari ikinyoma bikomeza kwiyongera, NASA ntibitangire ibisobanuro bifatika ni kimwe mu bituma uku kujya kukwezi gukomeza gushidikanywaho.

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