Niba hari ikigo ku isi gifite icyubahiro, igitinyiro kandi kizwi ko gikoramo abantu b’intiti n’inzobere kurusha ibindi bigo byose ku isi, uwavuga ko ari NASA, ntiyaba akabije.

Ubusanzwe NASA, ni impine n’amagambo y’icyongereza , asobanuye ko ari Ikigo cy’ubushakashatsi gishinzwe iby’Isanzure n’Ikirere hamwe n’ibikoresho bikenerwayo [ National Aeronautic and Space Administration ], iki Kigo kikaba gifite icyicaro ahitwa Two Independence Square ,mu mujyi wa Washington DC, muri Amerika

Mu mwaka wa 1958, nibwo uwari Perezida wa Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika, Dwight D. Eisenhower yashinze iki kigo, mu itegeko teka rya Perezida ryiswe National Aeronautic and Space Act .

Gusa mbere yaho gato y’uko NASA ishingwa yari ifite izina rya NACA nk’aga Komite kateguraga ishingwa ry’iki kigo.

Ubwo rero kuva ku wa 01 Ukwakira 1958,nibwo iki Kigo NASA cyatangiye imirimo yacyo ku mugaragaro, nyuma y’igihe kitari gito inzego zitandukanye muri Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika zijya impaka ku miterere n’intego z’iki kigo, mu myiteguro ihanitse yari irimbanije kuva muri za 1945.

Guhera ubwo , habayeho ibikorwa bikomeye byo kwogoga ikirere, hamwe no kumenya ibikiberamo ,kugeza ndetse ubwo abakozi b’iki Kigo NASA baje no kugera ku kwezi , banakora ikitwa Skylab Station mu kirere mu 1974.

Umuntu akaba yavuga ko yari nka Laboratwari y’ibireba isanzure n’ikirere, hamwe no kubaka Sitasiyo Mpuzamahanga y’ibibera mu kirere ikorera mu isanzure ry’ikirere, nayo yagizwemo uruhare na NASA.

Mu bwoko bw’ibyogajuru NASA yagiye yohereza mu kirere, harimo n’ikizwi nka Apollo, hari ibiba bitwaye abashakashatsi, bakanabikoresha, hakaba n’ibyitwara ubwabyo nta ba pilote [ Unmanned Rocket Vessel] ,bikoreshwa n’abari hasi ku isi, hifashishijwe ikoranabuhanga rya Radari na camera kabuhariwe ziba zarashyizwe kuri ibyo byogajuru, bizihuza n’iziri ku isi hamwe n’abazikoresha.

N’ubwo ibikorwa bya NASA ariko bigaragara nk’ibihambaye, ni n’ibikorwa bifite agaciro gakomeye ,kuko mu ntego z’ibanze zashingiweho hashingwa iki Kigo, hari kubanza kunononsora iby’imibereho y’umubumbe w’isi [Earth Observing System].

Si ibyo gusa ariko, kuko hagombaga no kumenya byimazeyo iby’imigabane igaragiye isi, byibandaga ku itaka rigize isi ndetse n’amazi no munda yayo, mu cyo abahanga bita Heliophysics, ibi kandi byaje kugera ku musaruro ushimishije cyane nk’ibyo benshi bazi nka Bing Bang.

Aha ni naho haje kuzamo nko kumenya igihe isi imaze ibayeho, iby’uko izenguruka indi migabane n’urunyuranyurane rwayo, hamwe no kumenya uko ibihugu n’isi muri rusange bipima ibihe n’amasaha uko atandukanye ku ruhande uru cyangwa ruriya rugize isi.

Ikiza cyabaye mu kubaho kwa NASA , ni uko mu bushobozi bwayo buhanitse, hamwe n’abanyabwenge, intiti n’abashakashatsi bakoreshwa n’iki kigo basaga 17.381, ku ngengo y’imari ihwanye na Biliyoni 19.5 z’Amadolari y’Amerika, biragoye kuba wayabara mu manyarwanda.

Iki kigo ntikigeze gishaka kwiharira ubumenyi cyonyine, kuko mu mikorere yacyo kitabiriye gukorera hamwe n’ibindi bigo bikora ibisa n’ibyo gikora, mu rwego rwo guhuriza hamwe amakuru, kugirango ikigenderewe cyo gusobanukirwa n’ibibera mu isanzure bigerweho nta nkomyi kandi byatanze umusaruro. Kugeza magingo aya, ibihugu bishobora kuba bitanavuga rumwe, ariko abashakashatsi babyo bakikomereza gukorana.

N’ubwo kandi NASA ishingwa hari mu bihe bikomeye by’intambara y’ubutita hagati ya Repubulika Zunze Ubumwe z’Abasoviyeti na Leta Zunze Ubumwe z’Amerika , icyo gihe kandi inkovu z’intambara z’isi zombi zari zitarakira.

Ntawabura kuvuga ko Amerika ishinga iki kigo, yari ifite icyifuzo ko yakwigarurira ikirere, uku kwigaragaza kwayo, kukaba kwayibera indi mpamvu yo kuza imbere mu by’ubuhangange , utanatandukanya cyane n’imbaraga mu bya gisirikare .

Nko kuva mu 1946 umushinga wo gutegura ikigo NASA watangira, nibwo Amerika yatangiraga kugerageza gutera ibisasu mu kirere byo mu bwoko bwa roketi, icyamamaye cyane n’ikitwa Supersonic Bell X-1,hari mu 1950 .

Mu 1957-58 , Amerika yagerageje icyogajuru cyayo mu mushinga wari uzwi nka Projet Vanguard .

Muri icyo gihe kandi, ni nabwo Abarusiya bari barimbanije umushinga wabo w’Icyogajuru “Sputnik1” ,hari ku wa 04 Ukwakira 1957, kuva ubwo, Kongere ya Amerika yahise iteza ubwega, irahaguruka irahagarara ,ishyiraho impuruza mu nzego zose zishinzwe umutekano ,ibi bihe bidasanzwe byo kwikanga Uburusiya byiswe “The Sputnik Crisis”, ari nabwo nk’uko iyi nkuru yatangiye ibivuga Perezida Dwight D. Eisenhower yafataga umwanzuro wo gushing NASA .

Kimwe mu bigaragaza ubuhangange bw’iki kigo, ni iyo urebye ukuntu abayobozi bacyo bashyirwaho, n’uko bakurwaho, kuko ugomba guhabwa inshingano zo kuyobora NASA, agomba gushyirwaho na Perezida wa Republika, gusa akemezwa na Kongere ya Amerika.

Igitangaje, ni ukuntu buri mu Perezida utowe aba yifuza gushyiraho uwe bazakorana mu miyoborere y’ikigo NASA ,uretse gusa iyo atowe, aturuka mu ishyaka ryari risanzwe ku butegetsi, icyo gihe nta kibazo. Ariko niba uwariho wenda ari nk’umu Demokarate, usimbuwe n’umu Repubulikani, ako kanya muri NASA zihita zihindura imirishyo.

Uretse abagabo babiri, James C. Fletcher, washyizweho n’umu Republican, Richard Nixon , ariko agumaho kugeza mu 1977, akaba yarayoboye iki kigo ku ngoma za Jimmy Carter na Daniel Godlin washyizweho na George H. Washington ariko akaza no gutegeka NASA ku butegetsi bwa Bill Clinton.

Lightfoot,Jr wari uyoboye ikipe ya NASA ku ngoma ya Barack Obama na n’ubu Donald Trump ntaramukuraho ,ntawamenya na we wabona yinjiye mu mateka ya bagenzi be babiri bavuzwe haruguru , akaba azategeka no ku butegetsi bw’aba Democrats n’aba Republicans bayobowe na Trump, ariko nta kizere .

Ikigo NASA kandi cyagize uruhare mu kohereza ibyogajuru bihambaye mu kirere, uhereye kuri X-15 Rocket Plane, Mercury , Gemini n’ibindi bitandukanye , ari nako yagendaga yifatanya n’ibindi bigo bikomeya birimo n’iby’Uburusiya byari byarigeze kuba abakeba ariko nyuma bikisungana mu mikorere n’intego.

Icyogajuru cyavugishije menshi isi ni umushinga witiriwe Apollo ,kuko na n’ubu byavuzwe ko Apollo yatwaye Leta Zunze Ubumwe za Amerika akayabo ka Biliyoni 208 z’amadolari ya Amerika, mu gihe umushinga wo kubaka agace gahenze cyane muri Amerika kazwi nka karitsiye ya Manhattan, mu mujyi wa New York byatwaye Biliyoni 26 gusa z’amadolari ya Amerika.

Ubu butumwa bwa Apollo bwageze ku kwezi bwa mbere bukaba bwari buyobowe na Bwana Neil Armstrong wabaye icyamamare ku kuba ari we wakandagiye ku kwezi bwa mbere.

Manhattan aha ni hahandi hubatswe ya miturirwa ibyihebe byasenye ku wa 11 Nzeri 2001 muri Amerika. Bivugwa ko iki cyogajuru rutura cyageze ku kwezi mu kwezi ku Ukuboza 1968 , aho kugeza mu 1972 cyakomeje gukoreshwa na Amerika, ubwo ubutumwa bwacyo bwarangiraga.

Ngayo nguko mu ncamake , ibigwi by’ikigo NASA ,cyabaye rurangiranwa ku isi, mu bijyanye n’ubumenyi bw’isi n’ikirere, aho kugeza ubu ubushobozi budahangarwa bw’iki kigo ,bwanamaze kukigeza ku mibumbe iri kure cyane nka Mars, kandi hakaba ntawashidikanya ko ubumenyi hafi ya bwose bukoreshwa mu gucunga ikirere n’ihindagurika ry’ibihe [ Meteorology ] ku isi bwifashisha ubuhanga bw’iki kigo.